Vitamins are a group of compound, required in small quantity for controlling metabolism and body functioning.
Vitamins are two types- fat soluble (A, D, E, K) and water soluble (B and C)
(A). Fat soluble Vitamins:
|Vitamins (Name)||Rich food source||Functions||Deficiency Diseases|
|A (Retinol)||Fish liver oils, dairy product, liver, most leafy vegetables and carrots contain carotene that can be converted into retinol||Needed for normal growth and induce differentiation of cells
Regeneration of rhodopsin in rod cells of the eyes. Maintain of normal vision
Essential for immune system.
|Dry skin, night blindness(Nyctalopia)|
|D (Calciferol)||Fish oils, egg yolk and butter. It can be made by the action of sunlight on skin||Promotes absorption of calcium from intestine.
Necessary for formation of normal bone
|Rickets in children (soft bones that bend easily). Osteomalacia (painful bones) in adults|
|E (Tocopherol)||Vegetables oils, cereal products, whole grain, nuts, egg, butter etc||Formation of red blood cells, affect muscles and reproductive system.
Maintain healthy cholesterol level
|Mild anaemia and sterility.|
|K (Phylloquinone)||Fresh, dark green vegetables. Also made by gut bacteria||Formation of prothrombin (involved in blood clotting||Delayed clotting time. May occur in new born babies before their gut bacteria become established|
(B). Water soluble Vitamins
|Vitamins||Rich food source||Function||Deficiency Diseases|
|B1 (Thiamine)||Pork, cereals, nuts, seeds, yeast, whole grain||Essential in converting glucose to energy
Important to nerve function
|Beriberi (weakness of limb muscles)|
|B2 (Riboflavin)||Milk, milk products, leafy vegetables, eggs||Involved in the formation of RBC, maintenance of body tissue particularly skin and eyes
Essential for metabolizing carbohydrates, fats and lipids.
|Cracked skin,blurred vision|
|B3 (Niacin)||Meat, whole grain, cereals, beans||Important for nervous system, digestive system and skin health||Pellagra (severe skin problem, Diarrhea, dementia)|
|B5(Pentothenic Acid)||Whole grain cereals and legumes||Part for an enzyme needed for energy metabolism||Pellagra, Dermatitis, Diarrhea|
|B6(Pyridoxine)||Meat, fish, egg, vegetables||Used to build RBC and maintain nerve tissue
Necessary for immune system functioning
|Skin problem, Nerve disorder|
|B9 (Folic Acid)||Leafy green vegetables, liver,||Necessaryto build nucleic acid, which are essential for making new cells especially RBC||Anemia|
|B12(Cyanocobalamine)||Liver, milk, fish, meat||Help build and maintain protective nerve sheath
Needed for RNA and DNA synthesis.
|Pernicious anemia, nerve disorder|
|C (Ascorbic acid)||Citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy vegetables||Protect cellular function
Important for immune system
|Scurvy (bleeding of gums, teeth falling)|