Vitamins- Science Notes for CTET 2020: FREE PDF

 

Vitamins

Vitamins are a group of compound, required in small quantity for controlling metabolism and body functioning.

Vitamins are two types- fat soluble (A, D, E, K) and water soluble (B and C)

(A). Fat soluble Vitamins:

Vitamins (Name) Rich food source       Functions    Deficiency      Diseases
A (Retinol) Fish liver oils, dairy product, liver, most leafy vegetables and carrots contain carotene that can be converted into retinol Needed for normal growth and induce differentiation of cells

Regeneration of rhodopsin in rod cells of the eyes. Maintain of normal vision

Essential for immune system.

Dry skin, night blindness(Nyctalopia)
D (Calciferol) Fish oils, egg yolk and butter. It can be made by the action of sunlight on skin Promotes absorption of calcium from intestine.

Necessary for formation of normal bone

Rickets in children (soft bones that bend easily). Osteomalacia (painful bones) in adults
E (Tocopherol) Vegetables oils, cereal products, whole grain, nuts, egg, butter etc Formation of red blood cells, affect muscles and reproductive system.

Maintain healthy cholesterol level

Mild anaemia and sterility.
K (Phylloquinone) Fresh, dark green vegetables. Also made by gut bacteria Formation of prothrombin (involved in blood clotting Delayed clotting time. May occur in new born babies before their gut bacteria become established

(B). Water soluble Vitamins

 

Vitamins Rich food source Function Deficiency Diseases
B1 (Thiamine) Pork, cereals, nuts, seeds, yeast, whole grain Essential in converting glucose to energy

Important to nerve function

Beriberi (weakness of limb muscles)
B2 (Riboflavin) Milk, milk products, leafy vegetables, eggs Involved in the formation of RBC, maintenance of body tissue particularly skin and eyes

Essential for metabolizing carbohydrates, fats and lipids.

Cracked skin,blurred vision
B3 (Niacin) Meat, whole grain, cereals, beans Important for nervous system, digestive system and skin health Pellagra (severe skin problem, Diarrhea, dementia)
B5(Pentothenic Acid) Whole grain cereals and legumes Part for an enzyme needed for energy metabolism Pellagra, Dermatitis, Diarrhea
B6(Pyridoxine) Meat, fish, egg, vegetables Used to build RBC and maintain nerve tissue

Necessary for immune system functioning

Skin problem, Nerve disorder
B9 (Folic Acid) Leafy green vegetables, liver, Necessaryto build nucleic acid, which are essential  for making new cells especially RBC Anemia
B12(Cyanocobalamine) Liver, milk, fish, meat Help build and maintain protective nerve sheath

Needed for RNA and DNA synthesis.

Pernicious anemia, nerve disorder
C (Ascorbic acid) Citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy vegetables Protect cellular function

Important for immune system

Scurvy (bleeding of gums, teeth falling)

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