Social Studies is an important section for CTET, MPTET, State TET, and other teaching exams as well. Social studies is the main subject in the CTET exam Paper II. In CTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total 60 questions of 60 marks, in which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography and Political Science and the rest 20 questions from Social Studies Pedagogy section.
At least 10-15 questions are asked from the History section in the CTET Social studies section. Here we are providing important notes related to the Vijayanagar and Bahmani Empire.
Vijayanagar and Bahmani Empire
VIJAYANAGAR EMPIRE: 1336 – 1565 AD
- Vijayanagar kingdom and the city were founded by Harihar and Bukka (sons of Sangama) who were feudatories of Kakatiyas and later became minister in the court of Kampili.
- Vijayanagar kingdom lay in the Deccan, to the south of the Bahmani kingdom.
- This period can be divided into four distinct dynasties viz. Sangama, Saluva, Tuluva and Aravidu.
The Sangama Dynasty: 1336 – 1485 AD
- Harihara I and Bukka I (1336 – 56): They laid the foundation of Vijaya – nagar. Conflict of Vijayanagar – Bahmani began with the foundation of kingdoms. Clash of interests in three areas: Raichur doab (between Krishna and Tungabhadra), Krishna – Godavari delta and Marathwada.
- Bukka I (1356 – 79): He strengthened the city of Vidyanagar and renamed it Vijayanagar. He restored harmony between the warring Vaishnavas and the Jains. The Rise of Malabar, Ceylon and other countries kept ambassadors at his court.
- Harihar II (1379 – 1404): Bukka I was succeeded by his son Harihar II.
|1336 – 1485||
Harihar and Bukka
|1485 – 1505||
|1505 – 1570||
|1570 – 1650||
- Deva Raya I (1406 – 22): He was the third son of Harihara II. His greatest achievement was his irrigation works where a dam was built across the Tungabhadra, with canals leading to the city. Nicolo de conti visited Vijayanagar during his reign.
- Deva Raya II (1423 – 46): He was the grandson of Deva Raya I. He began the practice of employing Muslim cavalrymen and archers in the army on large scale (Their induction had begun during Deva Raya I). He was called Praudh Deva Raya. In his inscriptions he has the title of Gajabetekara (the elephant hunter) Sri Lanka paid a regular tribute to him. Dindima was the court poet, whereas Srinatha was given the title of ‘Kavisarvabhauma’. Abdur Razzak, the envoy of Shah Rukh visited Vijayanagar during his reign.
The Saluva Dynasty: 1486 – 1505 AD
- Saluva Narsimha founded the Saluva dynasty.
- Tirumal (1491) and Immadi Narasimha (1491 – 1505): Both were minors during the regency of Narsa Nayaka. Vasco Da Gama landed in Calicut during his reign in 1498.
The Tuluva Dynasty: 1505 – 70 AD
Vira Narsimha (1505 – 09): He was the son of Narsa Nayaka, became the king after the assassination of Immadi Narsimha, the last Saluva ruler.
Krishna Deva Raya : 1509 – 29 AD
- Saluva Timma was the chief minister of Vira Narsimha. He placed Krishna Deva Raya, the brother of Vira Narsimha, on the throne.
- Krishna Deva Raya maintained friendly relations with Albuquerque, the Portuguese governor, whose ambassador Friar Luis resided in Vijayanagar. He won Orissa (Gajapti kingdom) for Vijayanagar and Vijayanagar emerged strongest during his reign.
- He took the titles of Yavanaraja Sthapnachrya (restorer of the Yavana kingdom i.e. Bidar kingdom) and Abhinava Bhoja. He is also known as Andhra Bhoj and Andhra Pitamaha.
- He was a gifted scholar in both Telugu and Sanskrit, of which only two works are extant: the Telugu work on polity ‘Amuktamalyada’ and the Sanskrit drama Jambavati Kalyanam’.
- His court was adorned by the ‘Ashtadiggajas’ (the eight celebrated poets of Telugu): Peddana (‘Manucharitam’), Timmaya (‘Parijata Apaharanama’), Bhattamurthi, Dhurati, Mallan, Raju Ramchandra, Surona and Tenali Ramkrisha (“Panduranga Mahamatya’).
- Krishna Deva Raya, a contemporary of Babur, was the most illustrious ruler of the Deccan.
- Duarte Barbosa and Dominigo Paes, Portuguese travellers, visited Vijaya – nagar during the time of Krishna Deva Raya.
- Achyuta Deva Raya (1529 – 42): Krishna Deva Raya nominated his brother Achyuta Deva Raya as the successor. During his reign, Farnao Nunij, a Portugese horse trader, visited Vijayanagar.
- Venkata I (1542) and Sadashiva Raya (1543 – 76): Real power was exercised by Rama Raja/Raya and his two brothers. The Battle of Talikota (also called the Battle of RakshasaTangadi) was fought on 23 Jan 1565. Rama Raja was taken prisoner and executed by Hussain Nizam Shah I.
The Aravidu Dynasty: 1570 – 1650 AD
- Tirumala Raya ruled in the name of Sadasiva Raya. On his failure to repopulate Vijayanagar, he shifted the capital to He divided his empire into three practically linguistic sections.
- This empire slowly shrunk and the dynasty ended in 1646.
- Nayankar System was the feature of provincial administration.
- Ayyangar System was the special feature of village administration.
- The rulers of Vijayanagar issued gold coins called Varahas or Pagodas. The Perta was half a Varaha. The Fanam was one tenth of Perta. All were of gold mixed with alloy. The Tar was a silver coin. The Jital was a copper coin.
- Vijayanagar was the only empire in Medieval India which employed women in the state services. Women even went to battles and it was only state that promoted widow remarriage. Status of women improved during this time.
- Viprulu: Brahmins, Rajulu: Kshatriya, Nalavajativaru Shudras Vipravinodins: Artisans, Kaikollas : Weavers, Sahagaman : Sati, Besabaga : Forced labour.
- The ruins of the Vijaynagar at Hampi were brought to light in 1800 by an engineer of English East India Company named colonel Colin Mackenzie.
- The Vijayanagar rulers produced a new style of architecture called as Provida
- Another important feature was the Mandapa or open pavilion with a raised platform, meant for seating deities and Amman Shrine.
- The rulers of Vijayanagar started the practice of inscribing the stories of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata on the walls of the various temples. Vithalswami and Hazara Rama Temple are examples of this type of wall inscription.
- Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah (1347 – 58): He was also known as Hasan Gangu. He founded the Bahmani kingdom with its capital at Gulbarga.
- Tajuddin Firoz Shah (1397 – 1422): He was determined to make Deccan the cultural centre in India. He inducted large number of Hindus in the administration on large scale. He paid much attention to the ports of his kingdom, Chaul and Dabhol which attracted trade ships from Persian Gulf and Red Sea.
- Ahmad Shah Wali (1422 – 35): He transferred the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar.
Break up of Bahmani Empire into 5 Kingdoms
|S. no.||5 Kingdoms||Year||Founder||Dynasty||Annexation (by)|
|Imad Shahi||1574 (Ahmadnagar)|
|Adil Shahi||1686 (Aurangzeb)|
|3.||Ahmadnagar||1490||Malik Ahmad||Nizam Shahi||1633 (Shahjahan)|
|4.||Golconda||1518||Quil Qutub Shah||Qutab Shahi||1687 (Aurangzeb)|
|5.||Bidar||1526 – 27||Amir Ali Barid||Barid Shahi||1610 (Bijapur)|
- Gol Gumbaj was built by Muhammad Adil Shah; it is famous for the so – called ‘Whispering Gallery’.
- Quli Qutub Shah built the famous Golconda Fort.
- Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah was greatest ruler of Qutub Shahi dynasty and it was he who founded the city of Hyderabad originally known as Bhagyanagar after the name of the Sultan’s favourite, Bhagyamati and he also built the famous Charminar.
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