DSSSB PRT Study Notes: Delhi Subordinate Staff Selection Board (DSSSB) is going to conduct the most prestigious exam in the field of government teaching jobs this year 2021. As DSSSB released more than 12000 teaching vacancies i.e. TGT, PRT post, students had already started preparing hard for this exam. Teaching Aptitude & methodology is a big topic for the DSSSB PRT exam which contains 100 questions for 100 marks. This topic contains teaching strategy, teaching methodology, learning principles, application-based questions and classroom management, etc. Here we are going to learn with Teaching Study notes for better preparation.
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Thorndike’s Operant Conditioning Theory
Operant or instrumental conditioning is a form of learning in which the consequences of behaviour lead to changes in the probability that the behaviour will occur. Thondike (1874 – 1949) was the pioneer in studying this kind of learning. His famous formulation of Law of Effect lies at the heart of the operant conditioning. The Law of Effect states that:
“Behavior that brings about a satisfying effect (reinforcement) is apt to be performed again, whereas behavior that brings about negative effect (punishment) is apt to be suppressed.”
(Morris & Maisto, 2001)
Types of Reinforcement and Punishment
Reinforcement is a consequence that increases the probability that a behaviour will occur. On the other hand, punishment is a consequence that decreases the probability a behaviour will occur. Put it another way, reinforcement will strengthen a behaviour while punishment will weaken a behaviour. There are 2 forms of reinforcement and punishment as shown in figure.
Take note that when something is added or presented, the process of learning is called positive and when something is removed or taken away, the process of learning is called negative.
Forms of Reinforcement and Punishment
|Form of consequence||Description||Example|
|Positive reinforcement||Receiving something pleasant will increase behaviour occurrences.||A student is praised for asking question. Subsequently, the student asks more questions.|
|Negative reinforcement||Removing something unpleasant will increase behaviour occurrences.||
A son who is tired of hearing his father’s nagging will does his homework. He does the homework to remove the nagging (Santrock, 2008).
|Positive Punishment||Receiving something unpleasant will decrease behaviour occurrences.||If a teacher frowned when his student asked a question, the student would be less likely to ask question again.|
|Negative Punishment||Removing something pleasant will decrease behaviour occurrences.||A misbehaving student is removed from the class.|
Schedule of Reinforcement
Reinforces are more effective when they are given as soon as possible after a student performs the target behaviour. In continuous reinforcement like this, a student learns very rapidly but when the reinforcement stops, the behaviour decreases rapidly too. Therefore, the schedule of reinforcement was developed. The schedule will determine when a behaviour will be reinforced. There are 4 types of schedule of reinforcement, they are fixed – ratio schedule, variable – ratio schedule fixed, fixed – interval schedule, and variable – internal schedule.
|Fixed – ratio schedule||
|Variable – ratio schedule fixed||
|Fixed – interval schedule||
|Variable – internal schedule||