In many teaching exams including CTET 2020, MPTET 2020 STET 2020 etc. English may be an interesting subject having and 30 questions of English content and 30 questions of English Pedagogy in CTET and other State TET Exams. In which English Pedagogy is one of the interesting and scoring topics under the English Language sections of teaching exams. In this articles, we are providing you topic-wise previous year questions.
TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALS
- Teacher teaches and students learn from teacher. In process of teaching learning processes teacher uses something to make his teaching learning process effective. The material and aids which are used by teacher to make his teaching very effective is called teaching aids and instructional material. The language teaching is not a static process but it is a dynamic process.
- Teacher should select teaching material and instructional according the objectives decided by teacher so that skill of reading, understanding, writing and speaking and sub skills of skills are developed in students.
- English is second or foreign language. So the teaching material and instructional material play important role in teaching learning process. Thus, use and selection of teaching aids must be very carefully.
Types of Teaching and Instructional Material:
- Visual Aids
- Boards: Blackboard, Flannel boards, Soft boards.
- Charts, Maps, Pictures, Drawings.
- Static and Working Model
- Film strip, Slider Projector, OHP
- Transparencies and Episcope.
- Audio Aids
- Audio Cassette Player
- Audio Visual Aids
- Video Cassette Player
- Video Compact Disc Player
- Film Projector
- Language Laboratory
- Computer Assisted Learning
- Visual Aids:
(a) Boards: Blackboard, Flannel board, soft boards: These boards are used to display different types of display material. There are kinds of display boards used to display charts, maps, tables etc.
(b) Charts, maps, Pictures and Drawings: These teaching aids play main role in teaching learning process. They interest in students. They prepare students mentally and motivate for further preparation. Teachers can prepare these aids himself of readymade. But he should himself be a creative person so that student could follow him. Charts may be written or drawn in thick coloured papers and can be hanged or displayed by using any of the boards. Pictures can also be displayed by using any of the boards. Maps can be either hanged or displayed by using any of the display boards. The teacher can draw picture or any sketch item also to be displayed with the help of display board.
(c) Static and working Modal: Models plat important role in teaching learning process. Teacher can use modal to make his teaching very effective, For example. Teacher wants to teach the topic elephant. He can use both the static and working model. Working model of elephant creates primary interest in students. Static modal can be used if working model is not available. If models are not available. He can use charts, pictures or drawing.
(d) Film strip, slide Projector, OHP: Transparencies and Episcope: The teacher can use film strip and slide projector to make his teaching too effective. These aids make students to draw their attention very carefully toward teaching. Slides are available in the market and teacher can use them according to need of content.
(e) Over Head Projector: OHP is the hardware used to project the transparencies. The transparency is plastic sheet which on which teacher can develop his own material to be presented. Use of OHP by teacher is good practical that help him to make his teaching very interested effective.
(f) Episcope: Episcope is also known as Epidiascope. The material on opaque sheet is projected with the help of this hardware.
The teacher can project any material developed in simple plain paper sheet. Small size of picture can be projected through this instructional material.
- Audio Aids:
(a) Audio cassette player: We all re introduced of tape recorder or audio cassette player. We use it in our houses and shop to listen song. It is also used in teaching learning process by teacher. It makes teaching very scientific and effective. In this process the subject matter is recorded as audio cassette and played on this machine. The students repeat the subject matter and learn. The learners have an access to native language and they better drill the pattern in its required form. The teaching activities become more and more effective and alive.
(b) Radio: The radio was very famous medium of mass media before three decades. It was first attempt to teach English with the help of radio. In this source the teacher has no criteria to select the learning material because whatever aired is the source. Radio must appeal to every type and level of taste. But there is room on the air for instrumental and vocal music, both classical and popular, addresses, forums, debates, sports events, mysteries, religious broadcasts, quiz programmes, variety programmes. It should be possible for the listener to make a free selection from among many of these kinds of programmes both during the day and in the evening.
- Audio- Visual Aids:
In the twentieth century technology was advanced at the highest pace. In the beginning of the year there were limited resources available but in the end of the options are many. It is believed that audio visual aids may create interest and motivation at the highest degree because through this teaching aid learner’s both eye and ear become active so they are widely used in teaching of language. Audio and visual both media have high impact on the mind of learners.
(a) Video Cassette Player: We have seen may films on video. How we see this film on video. Through which tool we take enjoy of film? This is video cassette which enable us take enjoy of film. This material is recorded in the video cassette and we look film. Thus in teaching learning process teacher uses this VCP to make his teaching effective and alive. Teaching materials available on the video tape are played by this machine VCP.
(b) Video Compact Disc Player: Now we can take the help of VCD to make teaching effective so to view the material the VCD is played on this machine. it is the latest audio visual aid. The programmes record on the video cassettes can be transferred into compact disk.
(c) Television: We all know about television because rather it is available at every house in India. On television we take enjoy of film, serials, and other programmes. Television is instrument through which one can view educational programmes. The educational programmes are also aired from respective TV programmes production centre. They are as good as radio programs which teacher cannot select.
(d) Film Projector: Before the introduction of TV and other media resources, the film was very famous media. The programmes which are recorded on film are projected with the help of film projectors.
Language Laboratory: Language laboratory in the place where the learners have to listen on headphone. The language labs are set up with a view to provide listening activities in order to make them developing good speech habit. The learning material are recorded on audiotapes which are played back by teacher is to be drilled and the same is monitored by the mentor. Leaner himself records his practice and listens to it.
Computer assisted language learning: Computer assisted language learning means is to present teaching material trough computer. To use of computer in teaching learning process is innovation in educational circle. The computer technology has brought multimedia package means the programme is developed with all kinds of media available for presentation. In this presentation, texts, graphics, audio and video are available. The computer is multimedia system. It is VCD, DVD, VCR, Slide Projector and Film Projector.
Characteristics of various types of instructional material:
- Supplement Oral Teaching: We know that most of class room teaching is verbal which cannot make teaching learning effective: The verbal statements made by teacher do not help to clarify the viewpoints. At such a stage audio visual aids help to clarify the view of teacher.
- Audio Visual Aids motivator: Audio visual aids work as motivators in teaching learning process. Without use of these aids the teaching becomes alive less. While teacher uses teaching aids to clear his content then students take more interest int that teaching. They mentally prepare for further teaching. They are motivated to work more and effectively. Motivation, in other words is the preparatory. Phase for all act of learning. Audio visual aids are helpful in establishing motivation.
- Prevent Indiscipline and Monotony: Teacher use teaching aids to make his teaching effective and alive. Use of aids prevents monotony and indiscipline of student because it creates interest in student to know something. Thus it is helpful to make teaching very interesting.
- Make Learning Permanent: Audio Visual aids involve more than one sensory organs of the learner which improve retentiveness and make learning permanent. In audio visual aids, seeing and hearing go together which play extraordinary roles in learning. The aids apples to those senses that can respond adequately.
- Save Time and Energy: When teacher clear his content verbally or without any teaching aids, it takes more time for students to understand that content. But when it is cleared by using audio visual aids, it takes lees time and makes students to understand very easily. It saves more time of and energy of teacher and students.
- Provide direct Experience: There are aids that provide direct learning experience to students. Under this category education tours, visit to zoo, and museums, taking the students into the community – resources etc. are some of the sources that provides first-hand knowledge and serve as important aids for learning.