Rules for Active and Passive Voice – Download English Grammar Study Notes FREE PDF For REET Exam

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In many teaching exams including REET 2020, MPTET 2020 STET 2020 etc. English may be an interesting subject having and 15 questions of English content and 15 questions of English Pedagogy in each paper of CTET and other State TET Exams. 

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RULES FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE

An action of a subject, in relation to an object, is expresses in two ways. These two ways of expressing action of a subject are known as Voices.
A transitive verb has two forms or two voices. These are the Active and Passive.

Active Voice – Here, the subject performs the action. He/she is the doer of the action. It is a pretty straightforward relationship between the subject and the verb. So, we can say that a verb is in the active voice when the subject is the doer of the action that is expressed by the verb.
The sentences in Active Voice are simple and easy to understand.

Look at the following examples:
• I am drinking tea.
• He played cricket.
• They will help you.

Passive Voice – Here, the subject receives the action that is expressed by the verb. Therefore, we can say that the verb is in passive when the subject of the verb is acted upon.

It is generally used to show the action, which means that the focus is on the action and not the subject who does the action. Sentences in Passive Voice are not simple, as more importance is given to the action rather than the subject.

Take a look at the following examples:
• Tea is being drunk by me.
• Cricket was played by him.
• You will be helped by them.

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Changing the voice from Active to Passive:

Rule No.1:
The structure of sentence will be reversed in passive voice. The places of the subject and the object will interchange. The subject will shift to the place of object and the object will take the place of subject in Passive Voice.

Example:
Active Voice: he buys a camera.
Passive Voice: A camera is bought by him.

Rule No.2:
Only past participle form or 3rd from of verb (.e.g. eaten etc.) will always be used as main verb in Passive voices for all tenses. No other form of verb will be used as main verb.

Rule No.3:
The word “by” will be used before subject in the passive voice.

Example:
Active Voice: She drinks water.
Passive Voice: Water is drunk by her.

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Rule No.4:
Other words such as “with “or “to” may also be used instead of word “by “depending upon the subject of the sentence. These words are used in a very few cases.

Example:
Active Voice: I know him.
Passive Voice: He is known to me.

Active Voice: Water fills a tub.
Passive Voice: A tub is filled with water.

Rule No.5:
The auxiliary verb will be changed in Passive Voice depending upon the tense of sentence in its Active Voice.

Rule No.6:
Subject may not always mention in Passive Voice. Passive voice for some sentences can also be written without having subject, if it gives clear idea about the subject.

Example:
Passive Voice: Women are not treated as equals.
Passive Voice: Sugar is sold in kilograms.

English Study Notes For All Teaching Exams

When a verb changes from Active Voice to Passive, the subject and object change places with each other. The past participle form of the verb is used as the main verb in passive voice. Look at the table:

Tense

Active

Passive

Simple Present

Keep Is Kept
Present Continuous Is Keeping

Is Being Kept

Simple Past

Kept Was Kept
Past Continuous Was Keeping

Was being Kept

Present Perfect

Have Kept Have Been Kept
Past perfect Had Kept

Had Been Kept

Simple Future

Will Keep Will Be Kept

Conditional Present

Would Keep

Would Be Kept

Conditional Past Would Have Kept

Would Have Been Kept

Present Infinitive

To Keep To Be Kept
Perfect Infinitive To Have Kept

To Have Been Kept

Present Participle

Keeping Being Kept
Perfect Participle Having Kept

Having Been Kept

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