Social Studies is an important section for CTET, MPTET, State TET, and other teaching exams as well. Social studies is the main subject in the CTET exam Paper II. In CTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total 60 questions of 60 marks, in which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography and Political Science and the rest 20 questions from Social Studies Pedagogy section.
At least 10-15 questions are asked from the Social Studies Pedagogy section in the CTET Social studies section. Here we are providing important facts related to the critical thinking in social studies.
PROJECT METHOD IN SOCIAL STUDIES PEDAGOGY
Project method of teaching has evolved from the philosophy of pragmatism. It is experience centered strategy related to life-situation. This teaching strategy is based on the following principles
Principle of Utility: Choose those projects which are closer to the social life.
Principle of readiness: Involve the learners in finding the solution of the problem with their active participation.
Learning by Doing: Learner performs certain tasks and experiences new things. This adds to his knowledge and results in learning.
Socialization: It develops the feeling of cooperation and group work.
Inter-disciplinary Approach: To involve the knowledge of different subjects in solving the social problems.
TYPES OF PROJECT METHOD OF TEACHING
According to Kilpatric, “A project is a whole-hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment. Kilpatric has classified the project method in four types:
Constructive: When learners have to construct some things related to social life. e.g. charts, models, maps, parcels etc.
Artistic: These projects are generally allotted in the aesthetic fields of life. e.g. in music, drawing, painting art and culture.
Problem-Solving: These projects are given to solve the problems related to any life-situation or related to any subject e.g. how to operate bank accounts? Or how to send an email or letter. These general problems if solved, will make a child efficient for social-life.
Group-Work: A team of students is assigned a work to be performed. e.g. to develop a garden in the school.
Advantages of Project method of Teaching
- It helps in developing social norms and social values among the learners.
- It provides invaluable opportunities for correlation of various elements of the subject matter and for transfer of training or learning.
- It helps in growing knowledge very effectively as a result of their close cooperation on social participation in the spirit of democracy.
Disadvantages of Project method of Teaching
- The project cannot be planned for all subjects and whole subject matter cannot be taught by this strategy.
- It is not economical from the point of view of time and cost.
- It is very difficult for a teacher to plan or to execute the projects to the learners and supervise them.
Individual and Group Projects in Political Science:
- Teaching-learning of Political Science can also take place by assigning individual and group projects to students.
- Individual project makes the learner complete a task individually and is provided with adequate opportunity to observe and gather information on a particular topic, which thereby leads to acquiring knowledge.
- Group projects, on the other hand, help students perform certain tasks collectively. In the process, they are able to gather information from various sources and are also given the opportunity to learn from each other.
- Field research and visits to institutions of real governmental bodies like Village Panchayat, State Assembly, Parliament, etc. enable students to learn from experiences, rather than by simply reading or hearing about them.
- Involvement in a real-world experience makes learning more meaningful and permanent compared to regular classroom instructional programs.
- Places such as museums, the parliament, courts and several other governmental institutions are repositories of information.
- The collected artifacts, archival records, pamphlets, models, etc. can play a major role in the up-gradation of the knowledge of learners. They provide students with experiential learning experiences and involvement in a real-world experience makes learning more meaningful and permanent.
Projects in Economics:
- Economics gives considerable scope for assigning project activities to students.
- Project work requires in-depth investigation by the students under subject teachers’ supervision.
- It helps student in many ways even after completing the schools.
- Students study different topics in textbooks as part of the syllabus. Project work train students to learn to work on a particular economic question or issue they are interested in. They are required to think like an economist and do research –develop questions and questionnaire, collect and analyse data and investigate the particular economic question. Projects encourage students to learn to think critically.
- Projects give opportunity to apply skills they learn different subjects including mathematics and languages.
- Project works also help students to learn skills from outside classroom – using computers, talking to people to collect data and negotiate with team members. Teacher supervision on a continuous basis helps to acquire research skills.
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