Social Studies is an important section for CTET, MPTET, State TET, and other teaching exams as well. Social studies is the main subject in the CTET exam Paper II. In CTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total 60 questions of 60 marks, in which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography and Political Science and the rest 20 questions from Social Studies Pedagogy section.
At least 10-15 questions are asked from the Social Studies Pedagogy section in the CTET Social studies section. Here we are providing important facts related to the Primary and Secondary sources.
Sources: Primary and Secondary
Source is that specific material, on the basis of which the part is studied. Students learn to know about particular events to understand the process through which they arrive at the product.
- Primary sources are original records created at the time historical events occurred or well after events in the form of memoirs and oral histories.
- Primary sources include manuscripts, diaries, letters, rare books, historical photographs, first-hand accounts or documentary sources on a subject, person, event or issue.
- These sources serve as the raw material to interpret the past, and when they are used along with previous interpretations by historians, they provide the resources necessary for historical research.
- Primary source can be classified as physical source, oral source and written or printed
- Physical source like monuments, statues, weapons, idols, pillars, etc.
- Oral source like stories, tales, traditions, rituals etc.
- Written or printed source like manuscripts, diaries, letters, rare books etc.
- Secondary sources analyze, review, or summarize information in primary resources or other secondary resources.
- Sources presenting facts or descriptions about events are secondary unless they are based on direct participation or observation.
- Secondary sources often rely on other secondary sources and standard disciplinary methods to reach results and they provide the principle sources of analysis about primary sources. Some secondary sources are Biographies, dissertations, indexes, abstracts, bibliographies (used to locate a secondary source), journal articles, monographs etc.
Objectives of Source Method:
- To enable the students to develop critical thinking by using the sources and weighing the evidence.
- To enable the students to form their own independent judgement through a critical analysis of sources
- To develop elementary skills of collecting data, sifting the relevant data, organising them and interpreting them.
- To create proper atmosphere so as to make the people and events of bygone times more real to students.
- To stimulate the imagination of the students for reconstructing the past.
How to Utilize Sources?
Since many primary as well as secondary source are available, the question arises as to how they can best be utilized. The teacher should recognize the purpose and utility of sources books and reading. Such materials must be described and explained to the pupils. There are the different ways in which sources can be utilized.
Demonstrations: The teacher can convince his students by a demonstration on how to utilize the sources. The teacher can read a passage from a source by giving some information about the author also. It will provide motivation to the students to go through some such sources. The teacher can also describe the future possibilities of these sources, but he should be careful while utilizing these sources at proper time.
Assigned readings: The teacher can also use the sources by assigning selected passage for reading to the students. The care should be taken while selecting the passages that these should be interesting. The students may be asked to report orally to the class.
Verifying information: The teacher should lead the students to discover errors, inconsistency, or contradictions in the textbooks and to search the solutions in the source materials. In this way they can verify the information provided in the textbooks. Sometimes the problem is not solved; it will also be a valuable lesson for the pupils.
Voluntary reading: Students who have actually become acquainted with sources will continue to utilize them. The teacher can measure the success of his teaching of sources by the persistence and frequency with which students continue to use them.
- They may be used to enrich and verify the material contained in the textbook or other secondary account.
- These will be helpful in initiating the students for research.
- It will make the subject more concrete and meaningful.
- The use of sources gives a sense of reality to the subject.
- These will help in developing right thinking, imagination power, comparing and analyzing drawing inferences and discussion.
- It will also help in arousing the curiosity of the slow learners and stimulate their creative expression.
- It can be used to illustrate more important points in support of an oral lesson
- The students will be able to get reliable information
Demerits and Limitations:
- Sometimes original sources are not available.
- It is difficult to use it at junior level.
- There is lack of efficient teachers.
The source method is useful for the teaching of social studies but if it is used intelligibly by the teacher. He should have detailed knowledge about the sources. It may make the teaching more real and interesting.