DSSSB PRT Study Notes: Delhi Subordinate Staff Selection Board (DSSSB) is going to conduct the most prestigious exam in the field of government teaching jobs this year 2021. As DSSSB released more than 12000 teaching vacancies i.e. TGT, PRT post, students had already started preparing hard for this exam. Teaching Aptitude & methodology is a big topic for the DSSSB PRT exam which contains 100 questions for 100 marks. This topic contains teaching strategy, teaching methodology, learning principles, application-based questions and classroom management, etc. Here we are going to learn with Teaching Study notes for better preparation.
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NATURALISM AND EDUCATION
Naturalism is also termed as materialism. According to this philosophy, the basis of the world is matter. Mind is also a form of matter or an element of matter or a synthesis of both. Naturalism philosophy defines life in terms of material and chemical laws and emphasized the relationship between power, speed, and matter as of the nature of the causal relationship
Principles (chief assertions) of naturalism.
Following are the chief assertions of naturalism :
- A universe is a huge machine. Man is also a part of this machine and a complete machine in himself also.
- Life comes out of dead matter and is a sum total of physical and chemical reactions.
- All the capacities of an individual human being are delimited by his nature. Those are his innate and inherent tendencies and basic instincts.
- Man is the supreme creation of nature.
- The present life is real life.
- Unchanging laws of nature explain all the events and occurrences of the world.
- The true explanation of reality can only be done in terms of physical science.
- Thoughts depend on physical circumstances. They are activated only when some external stimuli affect the body organ of an individual.
Aims of Education
- To perfect the human-machine. The first aim of education is to make the individual work very efficiently as a part of the huge machine; the universe and also works as a very efficient machine himself.
- Attainment of present and future happiness. Biological naturalism advocates the attainment of happiness in the present life as well as in the life to come.
- Preparation for the struggle of existence. Education should develop the capacities of the individual so that he comes out victorious in the struggle of life and existence in this world.
- Adaptation to the environment. The aim of education should be to strengthen the capacity of adaptation of the individual. Reinforcement by education will give the individual added capacity and efficiency to this task of adaptation.
- Improvement of racial gains. Some naturalists believe that the racial heritage of cultural and civilizational achievements cannot be transferred from generation to generation by a merely natural process of inheritance. As such, education should conserve and preserve this cultural heritage and develop it further.
- Natural development. Education should develop the child according to his inborn tendencies, interests, inclinations, aptitudes, and capacities in a free environment.
- Autonomous development. The development of an individual is to be free, fully autonomous, and self-acquired.
The curriculum should consist of subjects and items which reflect the inborn tendencies, natural interests, natural activities, individual differences, and sex problems of children. The curriculum should contain :
c. Physical culture.
f. Nature study.
i. Geography and other allied subjects
METHODS OF TEACHING: –
Naturalism prescribed :
- Learning by doing.
- Learning by experience, and
- Learning by play is the basis of teaching.
The principles advocated by naturalists have brought into being the modern methods of teaching which are :
- Observation method.
- Play-way method.
- Heuristic method.
- Dalton plan.
- Montessori Method and other such methods.
- Experimental methods.
All these methods are self-learning methods and as such, they are very effective and purposeful.
NATURALISM AND TEACHER: –
Nature is the only supreme teacher, in whose close contact the child develops normally and naturally. In the process of education, the place of the child is more important and central than the teacher. The teacher is only to set the stage and allow the child to act freely according to his inherent capacities and the teacher is only to act as a sympathetic observer and guide.
In the field of discipline also, naturalists depend upon nature and advocate the theory of ‘discipline by natural consequences.’ According to them, nature will punish the child if he contravenes the law of nature and thus he will learn by the consequences of his own actions.