The Environment studies is a multi-disciplinary science comprising of various branches of studies like chemistry, physical science, life science, agriculture, health, sanitary engineering etc. Environmental Studies may be an interesting subject having 30 questions in CTET and other State TET Exams. It is advised is to study the NCERT books from class 1 to 8 of to prepare well for CTET Exam. The current article will give few introductory points on Environmental Studies related topic followed by interesting facts of the same.
NATURAL RESOURCES: These things include water (seas and fresh water), land, soils, rocks, forests (vegetation), animals (including fish), fossil fuels and minerals. They are called Natural Resources and are the basis of life on earth.
It may exist:
(i) As a separate ENTITY
(ii) As a LIVING ORGANISM
(iii) As most forms of ENERGY
(iv) In an ALTERNATE FORM
1. On the basis of ORIGIN:
• BIOTIC: Biotic resources are resources derived from the biosphere such as living things and from forest and the materials derived from them. This mainly includes fossil fuels like petroleum, coal gas, etc.
• ABIOTIC: Abiotic means other than living things that mean non-living things examples are fresh air, land ,heavy metal.
2. On the basis of STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT
2.(a) POTENTIAL RESOURCES:
• Exist in a religion
• Maybe used in future.
Eg. PETROLEUM → it occurs with sedimentary rocks, but until it is drilled out for use, it remains a potential resource.
2.(b) ACTUAL RESOURCES:
Eg. WOOD PROCESSING → depends on the technology available and cost involved.
2.(c) RESERVE RESOURCES:
• PART of an actual resource
• DEVELOPED profitably in future
2.(d) STOCK RESOURCES :
• SURVEYED resources
• CANNOT BE USED
• Due to lack of technology
3. On the basis of RENEWABILITY
• RENEWABLE RESOURCES
• NON – RENEWABLE RESOURCES
NATURAL RESOURCE CONSERVATION:
1. CONSERVING earths biological diversity
2. SAFEGUARDING ecosystem services
It Involves :
• Public policy
• Sustainable Development
⟹ A careful preservation and protection of a natural resource to PREVENT exploitation or destruction.
1. Get TANK LESS WATER HEATER as it reduces the usage of natural gas.
2. Buy a HYBRID CAR to conserve fossil fuels.
3. RECYCLING products that come from trees.
4. Hydro power and solar power sources
5. Use REUSABLE cloth bags.
6. Replace light bulbs with LED.
7. Get rid of objects containing mercury.
ROLE FOR INDIVIDUAL IN CONSERVATION OF RESOURCES
Every individual has the responsibility to use natural resources judiciously.
This will give equal opportunity to all to use the resources for the benefit of mankind.
NEED FOR CONSERVATION
(i) The amount of natural resources is decreasing.
(ii) Loss of energy resources has been caused by deforestation.
(iii) International capacities conserving the resources are not properly organized.
(iv) To preserve biodiversity
OBJECTIVES OF CONSERVATION
(i) To ENSURE, of resources for survival availability sustainability
(ii) To PRESERVE is diversity at specific levels.
(iii) To MAINTAIN the essential ecological process is and the life support system.
⟹ An essential natural resource for survival and prosperity of humanity
Increased demand on land resources, shows :
1. Declining crop production
2. Degradation of land quality
3. Competition for land
LAND DEGRADATION: A process in which the value of the BIOPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT IS AFFECTED by a combination of human – induced processes acting upon the land.
It is viewed as ANY CHANGE I DISTURBANCE to the Land perceived to be
DESERTIFICATION: A type of land degradation in which DRY of land becomes ARID, losing its bodies of:
(i) Climate change
(ii) Overexploitation of soil through human activity
⟹ When deserts emerge due to DEPLETION OF NATURIENTS
In soil that are essential for it remain ARABLE.
CAUSE: Loss of vegetation
• CLIMATIC SHIFTS
The rate of erosion and runoff decreases exponentially with increased vegetation cover.
(iii) POPULATION: With increase in population, more land is needed LEADING TO increasing pressure on limited land resources.
(iv) DAMAGE TO TOP SOIL: Increase in food production leads to nutrient depletion.
(v) Fertilizers and Pesticides.
(vi) Water logging
EFFECTS OF LAND DEGRADATION
(i) Soil structure and texture are deteriorated.
(ii) Loss of soil fertility
(iii) Increase in alkanity and acidity problems
(iv) Loss at social, economic and biodiversity level
⟹ The downward movement of a slope composed of earth materials.
Also known as:
• SOIL – CREEP
• ROCK – SLIDE
• DEBRIS – SLIDE
• EARTH – FLOW
During construction, huge portions of fragile areas are cut down and thrown into adjacent streams and areas.
These land masses weaken the fragile slopes LEADING to man – induced landslides.
Question for You:
Q1. Which of the following is considered as conventional, inexhaustible source of energy?
(a) Thermal energy
(c) Solar energy
(d) Wind energy
Sol. Hydro-power is virtually inexhaustible resources. It is considered as conventional source of energy.
Q2. What is it called when sediment is moved by wind, water, ice, and gravity?
Sol. Erosion happens when rocks and sediments are picked up and moved to another place by ice, water, wind or gravity.
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