Narration -Download English Grammar Study Notes FREE PDF For REET Exam

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In many teaching exams including REET 2020, MPTET 2020 STET 2020 etc. English may be an interesting subject having and 15 questions of English content and 15 questions of English Pedagogy in each paper of REET and other State TET Exams. 

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NARRATION PART-II

 

Rule:-11

Remember that – ‘will’ and ‘shall’ are always changed into ‘would’ in Indirect Speech.

Example:

He said, “I will go to London tomorrow.”

He said that he would go to London the next day.

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Rule:- 12

If the Direct Speech contains a Universal Truth, the tense of the Indirect Speech remains unchanged, even if the reporting verb is in the past.

Example:

The teacher said, “The sun rises in the East.”

The teacher said that the sun rises in the East.

Rule:- 13

The adverbs of nearness in Direct Speech should be put into those of distance in Indirect Speech.

‘now’ changes into ‘then’; ‘here’ changes into ‘there’; ‘here after’ changes into ‘there after’; ‘this’ changes into ‘that’; ‘these’ changes into ‘those’; ‘ago’ change into ‘before; ‘thus’ changes into ‘so’; ‘today’ changes into ‘that day’;  ‘tonight’ changes into ‘that night’; ‘last night’; changes into ‘the previous night’; ‘yesterday’ changes into ‘the day before’ or ‘the previous day’; ‘tomorrow’ changes into ‘the next day’ or ‘the following day; ‘last week’ changes into ‘the week before’ or ‘the previous week’; ‘next week’ changes into ‘the week after’ or ‘the following week’; ‘last month’ changes into ‘the month before’ or the ‘the previous month’; ‘next month’ changes into ‘as month after’; ‘hither’ changes into ‘thither’; ‘hence’ changes into ‘thence’.

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Rule:- 14

To change questions, which can be answered in yes or no, into Indirect Speech, word – ‘if’ or ‘whether’ is used before the question in Indirect Speech.

Example:

He said to me, “Are you interested?”

He asked me if I was interested.

Rule:-15

Remember that ‘that’ is not used between a reporting verb and reported speech as conjunction in Indirect Speech for a question sentence. Question mark is used in Indirect Speech.

 

Example:

He said to me, “Do you like music?”

He asked me if I liked music. (Not, that I liked music)

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Rule:-16

To change questions into Indirect Speech which cannot be answered in ‘Yes’ or ‘No’, the word ‘if’ or ‘whether’ is not used. The tense of the question is changed according to the rules for change in normal tenses in Indirect Speech but the sentence will not start with the auxiliary verb of the tense. The word ‘that’ is not used between the reporting verb and reported speech as conjunction and question mark (?) is also not used. Remember that an interrogative sentence is changed into assertive sentence in the Indirect Speech.

Example:

He said to me, “How are you?”

He asked me how I was. (Not, how was I)

Rule:-17

When we report commands and requests, the indirect speech is introduced by verbs expressing a command or request, like- ordered, requested, commanded, shouted, etc.

Example:

The master said to the servant, “Go away.”

The master ordered the servant to go away.

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Rule:-18

When we change Interrogative sentences from Direct to Indirect Speech, the Reporting verb ‘told’ / ’said’ changes into ‘asked’ / ‘enquired of’.

Example:

Ram said to his brother, “When will the train leave?”

Ram asked his brother when the train would leave.

Rule:-19

Remember that the pronoun (subject) of the reported speech is changed according to the pronoun of the reporting verb or object (person) (first part of sentence). Sometimes the pronoun may not even change as well.

Rule:-20

The first person pronoun in the reported speech (i.e. I, we, me, us, mine, or our)

Is changed according to the pronoun of the reporting verb if the pronoun in the reporting verb is third person pronoun (i.e. he, she, it, they, him, his, her, them or their.)

Example:

He said, “I live in New York.”

He said that he lived in New York.

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