Important Grammar Rules- English Notes for CTET 2020: FREE PDF

Important Grammar Rules

Rules of Pronoun

SHORTCUT RULE 1:  We should use the personal pronouns in the order of 231 for good results (I mean, Second Person, Third Person, First Person).

The order 123 (First Person, Second Person and Third Person) is also possible when we admit guilt.

SHORTCUT RULE 2: A Pronoun in the nominative form should be compared with the same form of the pronoun.

 

SHORTCUT RULE 3: A Pronoun in the objective case is used after “Let / Between / Any Preposition”

 

SHORTCUT RULE 4: When a pronoun stands for a collective noun, it should be used in the singular form.

 

SHORTCUT RULE 5: When two singular nouns are joined by “and”, refer to the same person, the pronoun used in their place should be singular in form.

SHORTCUT RULE 6: A singular pronoun should be used when two singular nouns are joined by either or / neither nor

SHORTCUT RULE 7: A pronoun in the plural form should be used when two nouns of different members are joined by “or” or “nor”.

SHORTCUT RULE 8: The distributive pronouns “Either / Neither / None / Any / No one” are used with singular verbs.

Either / Neither ……………………Used for two Person / Things

None / No one / Any ……………. Used for more than two person / things.

Any ……………………….Used for more than two persons / things.   Have a look at some 

SHORTCUT RULE 9: The Reciprocal pronouns “Each other / One another”

Each other – For two persons

One another – For more than two persons.

The two sister hate each other.

The five brother love one another.

SHORTCUT RULE 10: The indefinite pronoun “One” should be used as “One’s” for  its possessive case.

SHORTCUT RULE 11: The verbs such as “Hurt / Cheat / Prostrate / Introduce / Present / Absent / Satisfy / Prepare / Enjoy / Avail of” are followed by either “an” object or “a” reflexive pronoun. (Myself / Ourselves / Yourself / Yourselves) (Himself / Herself / Itself / Themselves)

SHORTCUT RULE 12: The use of Relative Pronouns:

Who…………….. for Persons

Which ……………..for Things.

That …………….. is used both for persons and things.

SHORTCUT RULE 13: The word “Who” as a relative pronoun is used in the nominative case, takes a verb.

The word “Whom” as a relative pronoun is used in the objective case (takes no verb)

SHORTCUT RULE 14: Agreement of the verb with its antecedent in number and person

SHORTCUT RULE 15: If a pronoun is to be placed after “to be”, the pronoun in the subjective case is used.

 

Rules of Conjunctions

SHORTCUT RULE 1: The co-relative conjunctions are used in pairs.

Not only – but also

Either – or

Neither – nor

Both – and

Though – yet

Whether – or

Please see that the pair is properly used.

 

SHORTCUT RULE 2: After the adverbs “Hardly / Scarcely”, the conjunction ‘when or before’ should be used.

SHORTCUT RULE 3: After ‘Rather / Other, the subordinating conjunction’ Than should be used.

SHORTCUT RULE 4: After the subordinating conjunction ‘lest’ the auxiliary ‘should’ is used.

Lest – for fear that / If it is not so.

SHORTCUT RULE 5: The connecting word ‘that’ is used with the adjective phrase ‘the same/the only/superlative adjectives/all.

SHORTCUT RULE 6: The conjunction ‘or’ is used with not / never.

SHORTCUT RULE 7: With the word ‘such’ the connective ‘that’ may be used.

SHORTCUT RULE 8: 

Until – Denotes Time

Unless – Denotes Condition

SHORTCUT RULE 9: After the connective ‘because’ the words ‘so/therefore/as’ are not used.

SHORTCUT RULE 10: The adverb ‘Not’ should not be used with the connective ‘Till/unless/lest/until’ in that clause.

SHORTCUT RULE 11: When ‘since’ is used as a conjunction should be preceded by present perfect tense and followed by a verb in the past tense to denote point of time.

SHORTCUT RULE 12: With the conjunction ‘if’ ‘then’ should not be used.

SHORTCUT RULE 13: When two objects are joined by ‘as well/besides/along with /together with / in addition to / except / including with, the verb agrees with the first subject in number.

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