Social Studies is an important section for REET/UTET, MPTET, State TET, and other teaching exams as well. Social studies is the main subject in the REET/UTET exam Paper II. In REET/UTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total 60 questions of 60 marks, in which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography and Political Science and the rest 20 questions from Social Studies Pedagogy section. At least 10-15 questions are asked from the Political Science section in the REET/UTET Social studies section. Here we are providing important Notes related to the Important Constitutional Amendment Acts.
Important Constitutional Amendment Acts
1st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1951: This amendment added Article 15(4) and Article 19(6) and brought changes in the right to private property in pursuance with the decision of Supreme Court concerning fundamental rights. Ninth schedule to the Constitution was also added by it.
7th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1956: Through this amendment the implementation of State Reorganization Act, was made possible. The categorisation of States into Part A, Part B and Part C ceased henceforth. The seats in the Rajya Sabha and in the Union and State Legislatures were reallocated. It also effected changes regarding appointment of additional and acting judges, High Courts and their jurisdictions etc.
13th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1962: Insertion of Art. 371 A to make special provisions for the administration of the State of Nagaland.
14th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1962: Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yenam, the former French territories, were specified in the Constitution as the Union Territory of Pondicherry (now Puducherry).
15th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1963: It raised the age of retirement of a High Court Judge from 60 to 62. Extended the jurisdiction of a High Court to issue writs under Art. 226 to a Government or authority situated outside its territorial jurisdiction where the cause of action arises within such jurisdiction.
19th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1966: Article 324 was amended to clarify the duties of the Election Commission. It deprived the Election Commission of the power to appoint election tribunals for deciding election disputes of members of Parliament and State Legislatures.
21st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1967: Sindhi language was included as 15th regional language in the Eighth Schedule.
24th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1971: It was a retaliatory act of the Parliament to neutralise the effect of the judgement in Golak Nath Case. It affirmed the parliament’s power to amend any part of the Constitution, including Fundamental Rights by amending Article 368 and Article 13.
26th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1971: This amendment withdrew the recognition to the rulers of Princely States and their privy purses were abolished.
31st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1973: By this amendment, the seats of the Lok Sabha were increased from 525 to 545 but reduced the representation of UTs in Lok Sabha from 25 to 20.
39th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1975: The disputes or questions regarding elections of President, Vice President, Prime Minister and Speaker of Lok Sabha were taken out of the purview of judicial review of the Supreme Court or High Courts.
42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976 (Mini Constitution): The 42nd Amendment made fundamental changes in the constitutional structure and it incorporated
The words ‘SOCIALIST’, ‘SECULAR’ and ‘INTEGRITY’ in the Preamble. Fundamental Duties were added in Part IVA. Directive Principles were given precedence over Fundamental Rights and any law made to this effect by the Parliament was kept beyond the scope of judicial review by the Court. It made the power of Parliament supreme so far as amendment to the Constitution was concerned. It authorised the Supreme Court to transfer certain cases from one High Court to another and redefined the writ jurisdiction of the High Courts. It empowered the Centre to deploy armed forces in any State to deal with the grave law and order situation. It authorised the President to make Proclamation of Emergency for any part of the country or to whole of India.
43rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1977: The 43rd Amendment omitted many articles inserted by 42nd Amendment. It restored the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and the High Courts, which had been curtailed under the 42nd Amendment.
44th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1978: The amendment was brought by the Janata Party Government which repealed some of the changes effected by 42nd Amendment, omitted a few and provided alterations. Right to property was taken away from the list of Fundamental Rights and placed in a new Art. 300A as an ordinary legal right. In Article 352 regarding National Emergency, the words ‘internal disturbance’ were substituted by the words ‘armed and rebellion’.
61st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1988: It brought about an amendment to Article 326 for the reduction of voting age from 21 to 18 years.
69th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1991: Arts. 239 – AA and 239 – AB were inserted in the Constitution to provide a National Capital Territory designation to Union Territory of Delhi with a legislative Assembly and Council of Ministers.
73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992: The institution of Panchayati Raj received Constitutional guarantee, status and legitimacy. 11th Schedule was added to deal with it. It also inserted part IX, containing Arts. 243, 243A to 243O.
74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992: Provided for constitutional sanctity to Municipalities by inserting Part IX – A, containing Arts. 243P to 243ZG and the 12th Schedule which deals with the items concerning Municipalities.
86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002: Added a new Art. 21A after Art. 21 which makes the right of education for children of the age of 6 to 14 years a Fundamental Right. Substitutes Article 45 to direct the State to endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years. Added a new Fundamental Duty to Part IV (Art. 51A) of the Constitution.
88th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003: This amendment inserted a new Article 268A after Article 268 which empowered the Union of India to levy ‘service tax’.
97th Constitutional Amendment ALL 2011: Amendment of article 19 [In Part – III, in article 19, in clause (l), in sub – clause (c), after the words ‘or unions’, the words ‘or co – operative societies’ shall be inserted.]; Insertion of new article 43B in Part IV. (“43B : The State shall endeavor to promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning democratic control and professional management of co – operative societies.”)
99th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2014: Insertion of new articles 124A, 124B and 124C. Amendments in Articles 127, 128, 217, 222, 224A, 231. The amendment makes the provision for the formation of a National Judicial Appointments Commission. 16 State assemblies out of 29 States (including Goa, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Telangana and Tripura) ratified the central legislation that enabled the president of India to give his assent to the bill. However, the Supreme Court, on 16 October, 2015, quashed the amendment in toto.
100th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2015: Amendment in the First Schedule of the Constitution of India to give effect to the acquiring of territories by India and transfer of certain territories to Bangladesh and conferment of citizenship rights to residents of enclave consequent to signing of Land Boundary Agreement Treaty between India and Bangladesh.
101st Constitutional Amendment Act, 2016: Sixth and Seventh Schedules, along with Articles 248, 249, 250, 268, 269, 270, 271, 286, 366 and 368 have been amended. Articles 246A, 269A and 279A are inserted while Article 268 A has been omitted.
Art. 246A’ contains special provisions with respect GST
102nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2018: Addition of articles 338B, 342A, and Added Clause 26C. Modification of articles 338, 366. Constitutional status to National Commission for Backward Classes.
103rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019: A maximum of 10% Reservation for Economically Weaker Sections (EWSs) of citizens of classes other than the classes mentioned in clauses (4) and (5) of Article 15.
104th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019: To extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Seventy years to Eighty years. Removed the reserved seats for the Anglo-Indian community in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies.
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