Social Studies is an important section for CTET, MPTET, State TET, and other teaching exams as well. Social studies is the main subject in the CTET exam Paper II. In CTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total 60 questions of 60 marks, in which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography and Political Science and the rest 20 questions from Social Studies Pedagogy section.
At least 10-15 questions are asked from the Geography section in the CTET Social studies section. Here we are providing important Notes related to the Himalayan Rivers.
The Himalayan mountain complex is the source of the following three drainage systems:
- The Indus system
- The Ganga system
- The Brahmaputra system
The Indus System:
Indus river: The Indus rises in Tibet at an altitude of 5,180 metres near the Mansarovar Lake. With a total length of 2,880 km, the Indus is one of the world’s largest rivers.
- Jhelum river: The Jhelum river rises in Verinag at the foothills of Pir Panjal and its drainage area in India is 28,490 square kilometres.
- Chenab river: The Chenab river is the largest of all the Indus tributaries and is formed by two streams Chandra and Bhaga which rise in the snow-covered Himachal Mountains near Kulu. Its drainage area in India is 26,755 square kilometres.
- Ravi river: The Ravi river rises in Kulu hills, near Rohtang Pass, of Himachal Pradesh and drains 5,957 square kilometres in India
- Beas river: The Beas river originates at a place called Beas Kund near Rohtang Pass in the Himachal hills. In its early stages, its valley is called the Kulu valley.
- Satluj river: The Satluj river originates from the Rakas Lake situated at an altitude of 4,555 metres in Tibet. The Rakas Lake is connected with the Mansarovar Lake by a stream. The Satluj enters India through Shipki La.
The Ganga System:
The Ganga river basin, with an area within India of 8,61,404 square kilometres, is the largest in the country.
- Ganga river: The Ganga river rises in the Gangotri glacier in Uttarakhand. Its two main headstreams Bhagirathi and Alaknanda – meet at Devaprayag, from where onwards it is called the Ganga. Its total length is 2,510 km, and it drains 9,51,600 sq. km.
- Yamuna river: The Yamuna is the most important tributary of the Ganga. It rises at the Yamnotri glacier in the Uttarakhand. From its source upto Allahabad, where it meets the Ganga, the Yamuna’s length is 1,376 km and it drains an area of 3,59,000 square Kilometres.
- Ram Ganga river: The Ram Ganga river rises in the Kumaon Himalayas and enters the Ganga Plains near Kalagarh. It joins the Ganga near Kannauj.
- Gandak river: The Gandak river rises near the Sino-Nepal border and joins the Ganga at Sonpur. It drains an area of 9,540 square kilometres.
- Kosi river: The Kosi river has its sources in the Himalayan heights of Sikkim, Nepal and Tibet. It drains 21,500 square kilometres in India and joins the Ganga below Bhagalpur.
- Son river: The Son river is a right-bank tributary of the Ganga which, after rising from the Amarkantak Plateau, joins the Ganga near Patna. It drains an area of 71,900 square kilometres.
- Damodar river: The Damodar river which actually meets the Bhagirathi-Hooghly in West Bengal, rises in the hills of Chhotanagpur Plateau. It drains an area of 22,000 square kilometres. Formerly referred to as the ‘Sorrow of Bengal’ on account of its floods,
- Chambal river: It rises near Mhow in in the highlands of Jan a pao Hills in MP. and enters a gorge at chaurasigarh. It joins Yamuna in Etawah district of Uttar Pradesh.
- Ghaghra river: It originates near the Gurla Mandheta peak, South of Mansarovar in Tibet.
- Kali river: it rises in high glaciers of snow-covered region of trains – Himalayas If forms the boundary between Nepal and Kumaon. It is known as Sarda after it reaches the plains near Tanakpur.
The Brahmaputra System:
The Brahmaputra river rises in a glacier, about 100 km south-east of the Mansarovar lake in Tibet. Before entering India, it is called the Tsang-Po in Tibet. Chinese maps show it as Yarlung Zangbo Jiang. It crosses the Assam Himalayas under the name of Dihang. The total length of the Brahmaputra in India is 2,900 km, and it drains an area of 2,40,000 square kilometres in India.
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