Governor Generals And Viceroys Of India- Social Studies Notes

Social Studies is an important section for CTET, MPTET, State TET, and other teaching exams as well. Social studies is the main subject in the CTET exam Paper II. In CTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total 60 questions of 60 marks, in which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography and Political Science and the rest 20 questions from Social Studies Pedagogy section.

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At least 12-15 questions are asked from the History section in the CTET Social studies section. Here we are providing important facts related to the Governor Generals and Viceroys of India.

GOVERNOR GENERALS AND VICEROYS OF INDIA

GOVERNOR GENERALS OF INDIA (1833 – 58)

Lord W. Bentick (1833 – 35)

  • Macaulay’s minutes on education were accepted declaring that English should be the official language of India
  • He abolished provincial courts of appeal and circuit set up by Cornwallis

Sir Charles Metcalfe (1834 – 1836)

  • He Passed the famous Press Law, which liberated the press in India.

 

Lord Auckland (1836 – 42)

  • 1st Anglo – Afghan War held during 1839 – 42, That time was the great blow to the prestige of the British in India.

 

Lord Ellenborough (1842 – 44)

  • He brought an end to the Afghan War
  • Annexation of Sindh (1843)
  • War with Gwalior (1843)
  • He abolished slavery (1843)

 

Lord Hardings I (1844 – 48)

  • 1st Anglo – Sikh war held in 1845-46 and the Treaty of Lahore in 1846, It also marked the end of Sikh sovereignty in India.
  • He gave preference to English educated in employment

Lord Dalhousie (1848 – 56)

  • His original Name is James Andrew Broun Ramsay
  • He abolished Titles and Pensions
  • He introduced Widow Remarriage Bill

Lord Canning (1856 – 58)

  • He was the last Governor General of India
  • He passed Widow Remarriage Act in 25 July 1856
  • Revolt of 1857 held during his period
  • He passed the Act of 1858, which ended the rule of the East India Company.
  • He withdrew Doctrine of Lapse

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GOVERNOR GENERALS AND VICEROYS (1858 – 1947)

 

Lord Canning (1858 – 62)

  • The Indian Councils Act of 1861 was passed during his period.
  • The Indian Penal Code of Criminal Procedure was passed in 1859.
  • The Indian High Court Act was enacted in 1861.
  • During his Tenure, the Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras founded in 1857

Lord Elgin I (1862 – 63)

  • Wahabi Movement also known as Pan – Islamic Movement held during his tenure.

Sir John Lawrence (1864 – 69)

  • In 1865, High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras
  • Bhutan War held in 1865
  • He created the Indian Forests Department and reorganized the native judicial service

Lord Mayo (1869 – 72)

  • He introduced financial decentralization in India
  • He established Mayo College at Ajmer for the princes
  • He was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a convict in Andamans in 1872

Lord Northbrook (1872 – 76)

  • During his Tenure, Kuka Movement of Punjab took rebellious turn.

 

Lord Lytton (1876 – 80)

  • He arranged the Grand Darbar in Delhi in 1877
  • Passed the Royal Title Act in 1876 and Queen Victoria was declared as the Kaiser – i – Hind
  • Arms Act in 1878 made mandatory for Indians to acquire license for arms
  • Passed the infamous Vernacular Press Act in 1878
  • Proposed the plan of Statutory Civil Service in 1878 – 79 and lowered the maximum age limit from 21 to 19 years.

 

Lord Ripon (1880 – 84)

  • Repeal of the Vernacular Press Act, 1882
  • The First Factory Act, 1881 to improve labour condition
  • Resolution of Local Self Government in 1882
  • Appointed Hunter Commission for education reforms in 1882
  • The Ilbert Bill controversy erupted during his time in 1883

 

Lord Dufferin (1884 – 88)

  • 3rd Burmese War, Annexation of upper and lower Burma in 1885
  • Establishment of Indian National Congress in 1885

 

Lord Lansdowne (1888 – 94)

  • The Factory Act of 1891 passed during his period
  • Categorization of Civil Services into imperial, provincial and subordinate
  • Indian Council Act of 1892, introduced elections which was indirect.

 

Lord Elgin II (1894 – 99)

  • During his Tenure, The Munda uprising by Birsa Munda in 1899
  • Rand and Amherst, two British officials Assassinated by Chapekar Brothers in 1897

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Lord Curzon (1899 – 1905)

  • Set up Universities Commission and the Indian Universities Act of 1904 was passed
  • Calcutta Corporation Act in 1899.
  • Partition of Bengal place in 1905. It was also a cardinal blunder of Curzon.
  • The foundation stone of Victoria Memorial was laid in 1906 and it was opened in 1921.

Lord Minto II (1905 – 10)

  • Swadeshi Movement during 1905 – 08
  • Foundation of the Muslim League in 1906
  • Surat session and split in the Congress in 1907
  • Morley Minto Reforms in 1909

Lord Hardinge (1910 – 16)

  • Annulment of the partition of Bengal in 1911
  • He Transferred the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911
  • Delhi Darbar and Coronation of King George V and Queen Mary in 1911
  • Madan Mohan Malviya established Hindu Mahasabha in 1915

 

Lord Chelmsford (1916 – 21)

  • Tilak and Annie Besant launched Home Rule Movement in 1916
  • Lucknow Pact signed between Congress and Muslim League in 1916
  • Kheda Satyagraha and Satyagraha at Ahmedabad in 1918
  • Government of India Act, 1919 and Repressive Rowlatt Act, 1919
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre held in 13 April 1919

Lord Reading (1921 – 26)

  • Chauri Chaura incident in 1922
  • Foundation of Swaraj Party in 1923
  • Kakori Train Dacoity in 1925
  • Foundation of RSS in 1925

Lord Irwin (1926 – 31)

  • Simon Commission announced in 1927
  • Butler Commission (1927)
  • Nehru Report (1928)
  • 14 points of Jinnah (1929)
  • Lahore session of Congress and ‘Poorna Swaraj’ declaration (1929)
  • Civil Disobedience Movement (1930)
  • Dandi March in 1930
  • Ist Round Table Conference in 1930

Lord Willingdon (1931 – 36)

  • IInd Round Table Conference held in 1931
  • Civil Disobedience Movement started in 1932
  • IIIrd Round Table Conference
  • Government of India Act passed in 1935
  • Burma separated from India in 1935

Lord Linlithgow (1936 – 43)

  • General Election held in 1936 – 37
  • Muslim League observed ‘Deliverance Day’ in 1939
  • Lahore Resolution in 1940
  • Cripps Mission came India in 1942
  • Quit India Movement started in 1942

Lord Wavell (1943 – 1947)

  • Wavell Plan and Shimla Conference in 1945
  • IInd World War ended in 1945
  • INA Trials in 1945 and Naval mutiny in 1946
  • Congress accepted the proposals of Cabinet Mission, 1946
  • the Muslim League observed the Direct-Action Day on 16th August, 1946

Lord Mountbatten (Mar – Aug 1947)

  • He announced the 3 June, 1947 Plan
  • Indian Independence Bill Introduced in the house of Commons
  • 2 boundary commissions Appointed under Sir Cyril Radcliffe

GOVERNOR GENERALS OF FREE INDIA (1947 – 50)

 

Lord Mountbatten (1947 – 48)

  • the first Governor General of free India
  • Kashmir acceded to India in Oct., 1947
  • Murder of Gandhi on 30 Jan 1948

  1. Rajagopalachari (June 1948 – Jan. 25, 1950)
  • the last Governor General of free India
  • The only Indian Governor General.

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