Social Studies is an important section for CTET, MPTET, State TET, and other teaching exams as well. Social studies is the main subject in the CTET exam Paper II. In CTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total 60 questions of 60 marks, in which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography and Political Science and the rest 20 questions from Social Studies Pedagogy section.
At least 10-15 questions are asked from the Social Studies Pedagogy section in the CTET Social studies section. Here we are providing important facts related to the Formulation Of Instructional Objectives In Social Studies .
FORMULATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES IN SOCIAL STUDIES
“Learning objectives (instructional objectives) are the description of the behavior expected of a learner after instruction.” —RH. Davis
MEANING OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
At the time of imparting instruction, i.e. teaching-learning of a particular lesson, unit or sub-unit of social studies, a teacher has to place before him some definite and very specific objectives which would be attained within a specified classroom period and resources in hand. Through these specific classroom teaching-learning objectives, known as instructional objectives, a teacher tries to bring desired changes in the behaviour of his pupils.
RELATIONSHIP OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES WITH THE GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF SOCIAL STUDIES:
- Goals or general aims of teaching social studies are long-ranged ultimate goals of social studies teaching. These may not be achieved until many years after the student has completed his schooling, others may never be fully achieved. However, their presence is of utmost importance for a teacher in the realization of his teaching goals.
- General objectives or educational objective of social studies teaching are the derivatives of the aims of teaching social studies. Actually, for their proper realization, aims are broken into some definite, functionable and workable units called objectives. In comparison to aims, objectives represent short-term, definite goals or purposes attainable within the specified classroom resources by a subject teacher.
- In comparison to general aims and objectives of teaching social studies, instructional objectives are narrow and specific. They are definite, tangible, precise and functional. They are predetermined and are always formulated in such a way that their attainment becomes quite practicable through the usual classroom teaching within the stipulated period of a fixed duration.
THE CHANGING CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES INTO INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES:
- An educational objective is said to be the product of value judgement’ which in practice represents a decision taken by some persons as a worthy end.
- This judgement should be the best possible one under the circumstances. In order that the decision is sound it could be in the fitness of things to proceed towards it in a systematic manner. This involves work of three kinds:
- derivation and statement of objectives,
- classification of objectives;
- definition of objectives in terms of behavioural outcomes for actual classroom practices.
The first category of work is of a general rather than of an abstract nature. This yields major ideas for developing objectives, which on being translated into specific statements. help in developing an instructional programme and in specifying the types of courses required at different levels.
The second category of such effort is needed for further classification and understanding of these objectives by discovering a system among them and articulating thein appropriately in terms of an educational programme.
Finally, there is the category of action which pertains to the definition of objectives at an operational level for a particular curricular area. This calls for the statements of learning situations, the nature of behaviour expected and the extent of achievement or behaviour modifications visualized, Teaching-learning situations, activities, and evaluation programmes directly Now from there. These are termed as instructional objectives.
Some of the basic principles to be kept in view while stating instructional objectives, after they have been derived are:
- The statement of an objective should include both the kind of behavioural outcome expected and the content. The former is sometimes called competence or modification part. The term modification implies that it is at the level of the individual’s behaviour that the change occurs as a result of learning. Content on the other hand is the medium for the realisation of the desired behaviour.
- Objectives should be worked out at the right level of generality (specificity) so as to be neither so vague nor so specific as to be non-functional. Complex or compound objectives need particular attention in this respect.
- Objectives should be stated non-compositely, so as to avoid confusion, repetition and contradiction.
- Objectives in a list should not overlap. It may be helpful to group together similar objectives.
- Objectives should be so stated that there is a clear indication and even distinction among learning situations required for realising different behaviour changes. For example, learning situations for memorizing certain facts would be basically different from the ones needed for developing critical thinking.
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