Narration -Download English Grammar Study Notes FREE PDF For REET Exam

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In many teaching exams including REET 2020, MPTET 2020 STET 2020 etc. English may be an interesting subject having and 15 questions of English content and 15 questions of English Pedagogy in each paper of REET and other State TET Exams. 

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NARRATION- Part I

 

RULE: – 1

When the reporting verb is in the past, all present tense in the Direct Speech will change into the corresponding past tenses.

Example:

He said, “I want to go.”

He said that he wanted to go.

Here, the simple present will become simple past.

 

RULE: – 2

If the reporting verb is in the present or Future tense (e.g., say, will say), there is no change in the tense of the verb in the Indirect Speech.

Example:

Raja says, “I eat a mango.”

Raja says that he eats a mango.

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RULE: – 3

The Present tense in the Direct Speech becomes Past tense in the Indirect Speech.

Example:

John said, “I write a letter.”

Johan said that he wrote a letter.

 

RULE: – 4

The past tense in the Direct Speech becomes past perfect or remains unchanged in the Indirect Speech.

Example:

Ram said, “I brought a pen yesterday.”

Ram said that he had brought a pen the day before.

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RULE: – 5

The present continuous tense in the Direct Speech becomes past continuous in the Indirect Speech.

Example: 

Peter said, “I am going to church.”

Peter said that he was going to church.

 

RULE: – 6

The past continuous tense in the Direct Speech becomes past perfect continuous in the Indirect tense.

Example:

Sachin said, “I was playing cricket.”

Sachin said that he had been playing cricket.

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RULE: – 7

The present perfect tense in the Direct Speech becomes past perfect in the Indirect Speech.

Example:

Kamal said, “I have done my homework.”

Kamal said that he had done his homework.

 

RULE: – 8

When the reporting verb is in the past tense, the reported speech in also in the past tense.

Example:

They said that they would visit Mumbai next month.

The prisoner thought that that he would escape from the prison.

 

RULE :- 9

The present perfect continuous tense in the Direct Speech becomes past perfect continuous in the Indirect Speech.

Example:

He said, “I have been reading a novel.”

He said that he had been reading a novel.

 

RULE :- 10

Remember that- ‘will’ and ‘shall’ are always changed into ‘would’ in indirect speech.

Example:

He said, “I will go to London the next day.”

He said that he would go to London the next day.

 

 

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