Communication process consists of some interrelated steps or parts through which messages are sent form sender to receiver. The process of communication begins when the sender wants to transmit a fact, idea, opinion or other information to the receiver and ends with receiver’s feedback to the sender. The main components of communication process are sender, message, channel, receiver and feedback. In the following, some definitions of the communication process are quoted :
Robert Kreitner defined, “Communication process is a chain made up of identifiable links. The chain includes sender, encoding, message, receiver, decoding and feedback.”
In the opinion of S. K. Kapur, “The communication process is the method by which the sender the transfers information and understanding to the receiver.”
(A) Elements of Communication Process
The communication process refers to the steps through which communication takes place between the sender and the receiver. This process starts with conceptualizing an idea or message by the sender and ends with the feedback from the receiver. In details, communication process consists of the following eight steps :
- Developing idea by the sender : In the first step, the communicator develops or conceptualizes an idea to be sent. It is also known as the planning stage since in this stage the communicator plans the subject matter of communication.
- Encoding : Encoding means converting or translation the idea into a perceivable form that can be communicated to others.
- Developing the message : After encoding the sender gets a message that can be transmitted to the receiver. The message can be oral, written, symbolic or nonverbal. For example, when people talk, speech is the message; when people write a letter, the words and sentences are the message; when people cries, the crying is the message.
- Selecting the medium : Medium is the channel or means of transmitting the message to the receiver. Once the sender has encoded his into a message, the next step is to select a suitable medium for transmitting it to the receiver. The medium of communication can be speaking, writing, signalling, gesturing etc.
- Transmission of message : In this step, the sender actually transmits the message through chosen medium. In the communication cycle, the tasks of the sender end with the transmission of the message.
- Receiving the message by receiver : This stage simply involves the reception of sender’s message by the receiver. The message can be received in the form of hearing, seeing feeling and so on.
- Decoding : Decoding is the receiver’s interpretation of the sender’s message. Here the receiver converts the message into thoughts and tries to analyze and understand it. Effective communication can occur only when both the sender and the receiver assign the same or similar meanings to the message.
- Feedback : The final step of communication process is feedback. Feedback means receiver’s to sender’s message. It increase the effectiveness of communication. It ensures that the receiver has correctly understood the message. Feedback is the essence of two – way communication.
(B) Barriers of Communication
Communication will be successful if all the four skills i.e. Listening, Speaking Reading and Writing are achieved by an individual. First of all, listening skill should be perfect in a person. The pupil should listen to the way people speak both at home and school. This kind of attitude will pave way for effective communication.
- Lack of observation : The students should observe the speech of teachers as well as learned person speeches very keenly. They will have the chance of hearing a lot of expressions which would be exposure of language to them. It is obvious that the people who lack the power of observation will be poor in effective communication.
- Lack of sociability : By nature, right from their childhood, some people won’t mix with others. Naturally their speaking skill will be less. Since they talk less their fluency will be affected. Lack of sociability is also a barrier for effective communication.
- Lack of Word Power : Unless the pupils are well acquainted with the words used in our everyday life they cannot put the right word according to the situation. They will be searching for words.
- Lack of Grammatical Knowledge : Poor knowledge of sentence structures also will lead to poor communication. The pupils should be well versed with sentence patterns and usage of tenses. Lack of grammatical knowledge also is a barrier for effective communication.
- Lack of reading habit : Reading habit also is quite necessary for developing communicative skill. Unless a person is a good reader he cannot acquire word power. While he reads aloud he is able to get acquainted with correct pronunciation. It is obvious that lack of reading habit is also a barrier for effective communication.
- Lack of writing skill : So many communications are made in written form. So many official dealings and personal communications through letters are going on every day. Unless the students have the skill of writing sentences without spelling mistakes and grammar mistakes there is no chance of effective communication.
On the whole speaking and writing should be performed without mistakes. Defective language expression is the main barrier of effective communication.