Social Studies is an important section for REET, MPTET , State TET, and other teaching exams as well. Social studies is the main subject in the REET, exam Paper II. In REET, UTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total 60 questions of 60 marks, in which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography and Political Science and the rest 20 questions from Social Studies Pedagogy section. At least 10-15 questions are asked from the History section in the REET, UTET Social studies section. Here we are providing important notes related to the Chalukyas, Pallavas and Chola Dynasty.
Chalukyas, Pallavas and Chola Dynasty
Chalukyas of Vatapi/Vadami: 543-755 AD
- The Vakataka power was followed by Chalukyas.
- Chalukyas established their capital at Vatapi/Badami in the district of Bijapur in Karnataka.
- Pulakesin II (609-42 AD) was able to check Harsha’s design to conquer Deccan.
- Aihole inscription is a eulogy written by his court poet
- He sent an ambassador to the Persian King Khusrau II in 625 AD and also received one from him.
- The Chinese pilgrim Hiuen-Tsang visited his kingdom.
- Pallava ruler Narsimhavarman ‘Mammala’ invaded the Chalukya kingdom, killed Pulakesin II and captured Vatapi. He adopted the title Vatapikondae. the conqueror of Vatapi.
- In 757 AD Chalukyas were overthrown by their feudatories, the Rashtrakutas.
Specimens of Chalukyan Temples:
- Vesar style: Jinendra temple, Meguti temple – Aihole (Ravikirti); Vishnu temple – Aihloe Ladh Khan temple (attributed to god Surya) – Aihole, Durga temple – Aihole; Aihole is called a ‘town of temples because it contains about 70 temples.
- Naraga style: Papanatha temple – Pattadakal
- Dravida style: Virupaksha temple and Sangamesvara temple, Pattadakal.
Pallavas of Kanchi (575 – 897 AD)
- The Pallavas were a local tribe who established their authority in the Tondaimandalam or the land of creepers.
- Pallavas were orthodox Brahmanical Hindus and their capital was Kanchi.
- Chalukyas and Pallavas tried to establish their supremacy over land between Krishna and Tungabhadra.
- Pallava king Narsimhavarman (630-668 AD) occupied Chalukyan capital Vatapi in about 642 AD and assumed the title Vatapikonda or conqueror of Vatapi.
- Pallavas were instrumental in spreading Indian culture in South-East Asia. Till the 8th century AD Pallava influence was predominant in Cambodia. The Pallava type of Shikhara is to be found in the temples of Java, Cambodia and Annam.
- They began the Dravida stye of temple architecture, which reached culmination under the rule of Cholas.
- Pallavas temple architecture can be seen in four stages:
|Mahendravarmana Group||Mahendravarmana I (600-630 AD)||Temple at Bhairavkona (North Arcot Distt.) Ananteswar temple at Undavalli (Guntur Distt.)|
|Mammala Group||Narishmavarmana I ‘Mammala’ (630 – 668 AD)||Mandapa temples and Ratha temples (Sapt Pagodas) at Mammalapuram (Mahabalipuram)|
|Rajasimha Group||Narsimhavarmana II ‘Rajsimha’ (680 – 720 AD)||Kailashnatha and Vaikunth Perumal Temple at Kanchi, Shore temple at Mammalapuram|
|Aparajit Group||Nandivarmana ‘Aparajit’ (879 – 897 AD)||Mukteshwar and Matangeshwar temple at Kanchi, Parshurameshwar temple at Gudimallam|
- The Pallavas also contributed to the development of sculpture in South India. The sculpture of Pallava is indebted largely to the Buddhist tradition. It is monumental and linear in form and avoids the typical ornamentation of the Deccan sculpture. The Descent of the Ganges or Arjuna’s Penance at Mammalapuram are its best example.
Gupta and Post-Gupta Dynasties and Their Founders
|The Chalukyas of Vatapi||Jayasimha|
|The Gangas of Talakad||Konakanivarma|
|The Guptas of Magadha||Shri Gupta|
|The Kadambas of Vanavasi||Mayurasharman|
|The Kingdom of Gaud||Shashanka|
|The Kingdom of Thaneswar||Pushyabhuti|
|The Later-Guptas of Magadha-Malwa||Krishnagupta|
|The Maitrakas of Vallabhi||Bhattarka|
|The Maukharis of Kannauja||Yajnavarman|
|The Pallavas of Kanchi||Simhavarman|
The Chola Empire: 850-1279AD
Capital : Tanjore, Gangaikondacholapuram
- Chola dynasty was founded by Vijayalaya, who was at first a feudatory of the Pallavas. He captured Tanjore in 850 AD.
- Rajaraja (985-1014AD) and his son Rajendra І (1014-1044AD) were the greatest Chola rulers.
- Vrihadeshwar or Rajarajeshwar temple (attributed to Shiva) were built by Rajaraja at Tanjore.
- Orissa, Bengal, Burma and Andaman and Nicobar island were conquered by Rajendra I.
- Rajendra I assumed the title of Gangaikondachola and built a city called Gangaikondacholapuram.
- The last ruler of Chola dynasty was Rajendra III.
- The king was the head of central authority helped by a council of ministers, but the administration was democratic.
- The Chola empire was divided into Mandalams (Province)and these in turn were divided into Valanadu (Commissionary), Nadu (District)and Kurram (a group of villages).
- The arrangement of local self-government is regarded as the basic feature of the administration of Cholas.
- Land revenue and trade tax were the main sources of income.
- The style of architecture which came into vogue during this period is called Dravida e.g. Kailashnath temple of Kanchipuram.
- Another aspect was image-making which reached its climax in dancing figure of Shiva called Nataraja.
- Kambana who wrote Ramavataram was one of the greatest figures of Tamil poetry. His Ramayana is also known as Kamba Ramayana.
- Kambana, Kuttana and Pugalendi are considered as ‘three gems of Tamil poetry .
- In the temples, the Vimana or the tall pyramidal tower dominates the whole structure of the shrine and imparts an extraordinary dignity to it.
- Gopuram and Garbhagriha are the other two important structures.
- The best specimens are the temples of Vijayalaya, Choleshwara, the Nageshwara temple, the Koranganath temple and the Muvarakovitha temple.
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