The Advent Of The Europeans In India- Social Studies Notes

Social Studies is an important section for CTET, MPTET, State TET, and other teaching exams as well. Social studies is the main subject in the CTET exam Paper II. In CTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total 60 questions of 60 marks, in which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography and Political Science and the rest 20 questions from Social Studies Pedagogy section.

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At least 12-15 questions are asked from the History section in the CTET Social studies section. Here we are providing important notes related to the Advent of the Europeans.

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The Advent of the Europeans

Company

Established

Head Quarter / Capital

Portuguese East India Company

1498

Cochin (1510 – 30), Goa (1530 – 1961)

English East India Company

1600

West coast : Surat (1608 – 87), Bombay (From 1687)

East coast : Koromandal, Masulipattanum (1611 – 41), Madras (from 1641)

Bengal : Under Madras (upto 1700) Calcutta (from 1700)

Dutch East India Company

1602

East Coast : Koromandal, Pulicut (upto 1690), Negapattanum (from 1690);

Bengal : Hugli (from 1655)

Danish East India Company

1616

Serampur (Bengal) : 1676 – 1845

French East India Company

1664

Sural (1668 – 73), Pondicherry (1673 – 1954)

Portuguese

  • Vasco da Gama discovered the Cape route from Europe to India. He reached the port of Calicut on May 17, 1498.
  • Trading stations at Calicut, Cochin and Cannanore were established.
  • Cochin was the first capital of the Portuguese in India. Later Goa replaced it.
  • The first governor of Portuguese was Francisco de Almeida. Almeida (1505-09) introduced ‘the policy of Blue water’.
  • The second governor of Portuguese was Alfonso d’ Albuquerque. He introduced ‘the policy of Imperialism’ and captured Goa from the ruler of Bijapur in 1510.
  • Nino da Cunha transferred his capital from Cochin to Goa in 1530 and acquired Diu and Bassein in 1534 from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat.
  • The famous Jesuit Saint Fransisco Xavier arrived in India with Martin Alfonso de Souza.
  • By the end of the 16th century, the Portuguese power witnessed a decline.
  • Portuguese lost Hugli in 1631 after being driven out by Qasim khan, a Mughal noble of Shahjahan.
  • The King of Portugal gave Bombay to Charles II of England as dowry when he married the former’s sister in 1661.
  • Salsette and Bassein were captured by Marathas in 1739. In the end they were left only with Goa, Diu and Daman which they retained till 1961.

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Dutch

  • The company formed in March 1602, by a charter of Dutch parliament. It was formed with powers to make wars, conclude treaties, acquire territories and build fortresses.
  • They set up factories at Masulipattam in 1605, Pulicat in 1610, Surat in 1616, Bimilipatam in 1641, Karaikal in 1645, Chinsura in 1653, and Cochin in 1663.
  • The Dutch replaced the Portugueseas the most dominant power in European trade with the East, including India.
  • Pulicat was main centre in India till 1690, after that Negapatam replaced it. They conceded to English after their defeat in the battle of Bedera in 1759.

English

  • John Mildenhall, a merchant adventurer, was the first English man who arrived in India in 1599 by the over-land route, ostensibly for the purpose of trade with Indian merchants.
  • ‘The Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies’, popularly known as the English East India company, was formed in 1600.
  • Captain William Hawkins arrived at Jahangir’s court in 1609 to seek permission to open a factory at Surat. A Farman was issued by Jahangir permitting the English to build a factory at Surat in 1613.
  • Sir Thomas Roe came to India in 1615 as ambassador of James I to Jahangir’s court to obtain the permission to trade and erect factories in different parts of the empire.
  • The English East India Company acquired Bombay from Charles II on lease.
  • Job Charnock established a factory at Sutanati in 1690 and the zamindari of the three villages of Sutanati, Kalikata and Gobindpur was acquired by the British in 1698. These villages later grew into the city of The factory at Sutanati was fortified in 1696 and this was named Fort William in 1700.
  • The British parliament passed a resolution giving equal rights to all Englishmen to trade in the East in 1694.
  • The final amalgamation of the company came in 1708 under the title of ‘The united company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies’. This continued its existence till 1858.

French

  • The French East India Company was formed by Colbert in 1664.
  • Francois Caron established the first French factory at Surat in 1668.
  • A factory at Masulipatam was set up in 1669.
  • The French power in India was revived under Lenoir and Dumas (governors) between 1720 and 1742. They occupied Mahe in the Malabar, Yanam in Coromandal and Karaikal in Tamil Nadu 1739.
  • The arrival of Dupleix as French governor in India in 1742 saw the beginning of Anglo-French conflict (Carnatic Wars) resulting in their final defeat in India.

Anglo-French Conflict/Carnatic Wars

  • An instance of Anglo-French rivalry.
  • First Anglo-French war (1746-48): The French besieged Madras. At St. Thome battle the Nawab of Carnatic’s army was defeated by French under Dupleix.
  • The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 ended the war of Austrian succession and First Anglo-French war in India.
  • Second Anglo-French war (1749-54): Dupleix aligned with Muzaffar Jung (Hyderabad) and Chanda Sahib (Carnatic/Arcot). After initial reverses, Robert Clive emerged victorious.


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